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Term Definition
P&C property and casualty
P&I protection and indemnity (insurance)
PA particular average
PAAS Premium Audit Advisory Service
PACKAGE POLICY A single insurance policy that combines several coverages previously sold separately. Examples include homeowners insurance and commercial multiple peril insurance.
PAIU Professional Association of Insurance Underwriters
PAP personal auto policy
PARMA Public Agency Risk Managers Association
PAS premium allocation system
PAY-AT-THE-PUMP A system proposed in the 1990s in which auto insurance premiums would be paid to state governments through a per-gallon surcharge on gasoline.
PBGC Pension Benefits Guaranty Corporation
PC professional corporation
PCAOB Public Company Accounting Oversight Board
PCC protected cell captive
PCI Property Casualty Insurers of America
PCIP partner controlled insurance program
PD property damage
PE professional engineer
PEBB public employee blanket bond

An independent federal government agency that administers the Pension Plan Termination Insurance program to ensure that vested benefits of employees whose pension plans are being terminated are paid when they come due. Only defined benefit plans are covered. Benefits are paid up to certain limits.


Programs to provide employees with retirement income after they meet minimum age and service requirements. Life insurers hold some of these funds. Since the 1970s responsibility for funding retirement has increasingly shifted from employers (defined benefit plans that promise workers a specific retirement income) to employees (defined contribution plans financed by employees that may or may not be matched by employer contributions). (See Defined benefit plan, Defined contribution plan)

PEO professional employer organization

A specific risk or cause of loss covered by an insurance policy, such as a fire, windstorm, flood, or theft. A named-peril policy covers the policyholder only for the risks named in the policy in contrast to an all-risk policy, which covers all causes of loss except those specifically excluded.

PERSONAL ARTICLES FLOATER A policy or an addition to a policy used to cover personal valuables, like jewelry or furs.

Portion of an auto insurance policy that covers the treatment of injuries to the driver and passengers of the policyholders car.


Property/casualty insurance products that are designed for and bought by individuals, including homeowners and automobile policies. (See Commercial lines)

PERT Performance, Evaluation, and Review Technique
PFIC passive foreign investment company
PI personal injury
PIA primary insurance account; Professional Insurance Agents (association)
PIAA Physician Insurers Association of America
PICA Professional Insurance Communicators of America
PIP personal injury protection
PIPEDA Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act
PIPSO Property Insurance Plans Service Office
PL professional liability
PLE primary loss expectancy
PLL pollution legal liability (insurance)
PLR primary loss retention
PLRB Property Loss Research Bureau
PLUS Professional Liability Underwriting Society
PMA package modification adjustment
PMF package modification factor
PMI private mortgage insurance
PML probable maximum loss
PMPL project management protective liability (insurance)
PNOC provisional notice of cancellation
POINT-OF-SERVICE PLAN Health insurance policy that allows the employee to choose between in-network and out-of-network care each time medical treatment is needed.
POL public officials liability
POLICY A written contract for insurance between an insurance company and policyholder stating details of coverage.

The amount of money remaining after an insurers liabilities are subtracted from its assets. It acts as a financial cushion above and beyond reserves, protecting policyholders against an unexpected or catastrophic situation.

POLITICAL RISK INSURANCE Coverage for businesses operating abroad against loss due to political upheaval such as war, revolution, or confiscation of property.

Policies that cover property loss and liability arising from pollution-related damages, for sites that have been inspected and found uncontaminated. It is usually written on a claims-made basis so policies pay only claims presented during the term of the policy or within a specified time frame after the policy expires. (See Claims-made policy)

POOL See Insurance pool
PORC producer-owned reinsurance company
PPF personal property floater
PPO preferred provider organization
PR pro rata
PRD pro rata distribution
PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATION Network of medical providers which charge on a fee-for-service basis, but are paid on a negotiated, discounted fee schedule.
PREMISES The particular location of the property or a portion of it as designated in an insurance policy.

The price of an insurance policy, typically charged annually or semiannually. (See Direct premiums, Earned premium, Unearned premium)

PREMIUM TAX A state tax on premiums paid by its residents and businesses and collected by insurers.
PREMIUMS IN FORCE The sum of the face amounts, plus dividend additions, of life insurance policies outstanding at a given time.
PREMIUMS WRITTEN The total premiums on all policies written by an insurer during a specified period of time, regardless of what portions have been earned. Net premiums written are premiums written after reinsurance transactions.
PRI political risk insurance
PRIMA Public Risk Management Association
PRIMARY COMPANY In a reinsurance transaction, the insurance company that is reinsured.
PRIMARY MARKET Market for new issue securities where the proceeds go directly to the issuer.
PRIME RATE Interest rate that banks charge to their most creditworthy customers. Banks set this rate according to their cost of funds and market forces.
PRIOR APPROVAL STATES States where insurance companies must file proposed rate changes with state regulators, and gain approval before they can go into effect.
PRIVATE MORTGAGE INSURANCE See Mortgage guarantee insurance
PRIVATE PLACEMENT Securities that are not registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission and are sold directly to investors.
PRO peer review organization
pro rata cancellation

When a policy is cancelled before it expires, the cost is prorated for the term coverage was in effect and the balance is refunded without penalty to the customer.


A section of tort law that determines who may sue and who may be sued for damages when a defective product injures someone. No uniform federal laws guide manufacturers liability, but under strict liability, the injured party can hold the manufacturer responsible for damages without the need to prove negligence or fault.


Protects manufacturers and distributors exposure to lawsuits by people who have sustained bodily injury or property damage through the use of the product.

PROFESSIONAL LIABILITY INSURANCE Covers professionals for negligence and errors or omissions that injure their clients.
PROOF OF LOSS Documents showing the insurance company that a loss occurred.

Covers damage to or loss of policyholders property and legal liability for damages caused to other people or their property. Property/casualty insurance, which includes auto, homeowners and commercial insurance, is one segment of the insurance industry.


Industry business cycle with recurrent periods of hard and soft market conditions. In the 1950s and 1960s, cycles were regular with three year periods each of hard and soft market conditions in almost all lines of property/casualty insurance. Since then they have been less regular and less frequent.


A November 1988 California ballot initiative that called for a statewide auto insurance rate rollback and for rates to be based more on driving records and less on geographical location. The initiative changed many aspects of the states insurance system and was the subject of lawsuits for more than a decade.

PRP potentially responsible party; preferred risk policy
PSA placement service agreement
PSAC Policy Signing and Accounting Centre (London)
PSC Public State Commission; Public Service Commission
PSI pollutant standard index
PSLRA Private Securities Legislation Reform Act
PSRO Professional Standards Review Organization
PTE prohibited transaction exemption
PUC Public Utilities Commission
PURCHASING GROUP An entity that offers insurance to groups of similar businesses with similar exposures to risk.
PURE LIFE ANNUITY A form of annuity that ends payments when the annuitant dies. Payments may be fixed or variable.
PV present value

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